Intubation: Step By Step

Fall is the time of year when new students commonly begin to learn how to intubate. My first intubation was one of the first times I literally held someone’s life in my hands. I was nervous. The anesthesiologist teaching me tried to not look too anxious as I awkwardly grabbed my laryngoscope blade, fumbled while opening the patient’s mouth, and cautiously maneuvered the endotracheal tube into the trachea. It felt like time stopped until the tube was in place, after which the three of us (me, my teacher and my patient) all took a deep breath. Since then, over the last almost 37 years, I’ve intubated thousands of people in the U.S. and, as an international volunteer, eight countries.

So I thought it would be helpful at this time of year to discuss a step-by-step approach to intubation with the commonly used curved blade. Intubation, like a dance, is composed of steps that flow naturally from one to the next. The trick to a smooth intubation is to allow each step to blend seamlessly into the next. The text and illustrations below are excerpted from my book Anyone Can Intubate, as well as from my upcoming book on pediatric intubation, which I’m busy writing.

Oral Intubation Technique

Intubation Alternates Hands

The act of intubation alternates hands. One hand positions the patient for the next action by the other hand. With practice, coordinating the alternating hand movements becomes natural. Once the head is optimally positioned, tilt the head into extension with your right hand to bring all the axes into alignment. This provides you with as straight a path as possible to see the larynx and pass the tube.

Illustration of the 3 axes of airway alignment for intubation

The 3 axes of of airway alignment.

Anchor it there momentarily using your left hand .

Illustration showing tilting the head into extension and anchoring it there with your left hand.

Tilt the head into extension and anchor it there with your left hand.

Anchoring the head frees your right hand. Open the mouth with your right hand by placing your thumb on the lower jaw and your middle finger on the upper jaw. The position is similar to snapping your fingers. By using a pushing rather than a spreading motion, you can open the mouth wider and more forcefully. Make sure that you place your fingers as far to the right side of the mouth as you can in order to keep your fingers out of the way of the blade. Your right hand now does double duty. It holds the mouth open as wide as possible. Pulling toward you also places the head in extension.

As you hold the head in extension, open the mouth with your right hand.Keep your fingers to the far right of the mouth to leave plenty of room

As you hold the head in extension, open the mouth with your right hand.Keep your fingers to the far right of the mouth to leave plenty of room. Use a snapping rather than a spreading motion.

Your right hand opening the mouth now also holds the head in extension.

You can now  use your left hand to pick up the blade. Hold it with the blade away from you. Because my hands are small, I place my hand lower down on the handle. By positioning the heel of my hand on the junction between blade and handle, I can fine tune the angle of the blade. You will need to see what feels correct for you.Notice how easily you can change the angle of the blade by tilting your wrist. You must control this motion carefully to avoid tooth damage.

f5_7ab-blog

Hold the handle in your left hand with the blade away from you.

Inserting The Blade: Protect Those Lips and Teeth

Insertion of the blade should be delicate and deliberate. Hold the handle in your left hand, blade down, pointing away from you. Grasp it firmly but don’t clench your fist because this decreases control and causes early fatigue.

With the mouth open, insert the blade, slightly to the right of the tongue. Don’t hit the teeth as you insert. If necessary, you can tilt the top of the handle slightly to insert the blade into the mouth, then rotate the blade back, scooping it around the right side of the tongue as you do so.

Avoid catching the lips between the blade and the teeth. I use my right index finger to sweep the lips out of the way of the blade as I insert it. You may need to angle a curved blade slightly to pass the teeth and then return the blade to  a more neutral position once it has entered the mouth.

Look For The Tip Of The Epiglottis Before The Final Lift

Slowly advance the blade with your left hand until you see the tip of the epiglottis, a very important landmark. Simultaneously sweep the tongue to the left as you advance . Once you see the epiglottis you can start to transfer the weight of the patient’s head onto the blade as you lift. Leave your blade toward the left side of the mouth with the tongue pushed out of the way.

Insert the blade to the right side of the tongue and sweep the tongue toward the left. Look for the tip of the epiglottis and make some final adjustments before beginning your lift.

Insert the blade to the right side of the tongue and sweep the tongue toward the left. Look for the tip of the epiglottis and make some final adjustments before beginning your lift.

How You Lift Matters

For optimal mechanical advantage lift upward with the left arm held fairly rigid. Keep you elbows in. Lift on a line connecting the patient’s head with the intersection of the opposite ceiling and the wall . It won’t be straight, but keeping your arm straighter and fairly rigid it gives you the strength of your shoulders to lift the head. It prevents you from using the teeth as a fulcrum — dangerous for the teeth. And it allows you to use binocular vision for depth perception.

Optimal posture during intubation allows you full control of your arms, wrists and hands to control the blade.

Optimal posture during intubation allows you full control of your arms, wrists and hands to control the blade.

With your shoulders relaxed and your arms by your sides you can lifting the jaw easily without rotating the blade back onto the teeth.

With your shoulders relaxed and your arms by your sides you can lift the jaw easily without rotating the blade back onto the teeth.

During laryngoscopy lift upward and away, never rotate the blade back onto the teeth.

During laryngoscopy lift upward and away, never rotate the blade back onto the teeth.

The typical beginners  mistakenly hunch close to the patient, bend the elbow completely, and place the right eye practically in the patient’s mouth. They then can’t understand why he or she has no leverage or control.

Improper intubation technique. You lack mechanical advantage and place yourself at risk of having to rotate the blade.

Improper intubation technique. You lack mechanical advantage and place yourself at risk of having to rotate the blade.

Poor technique. With your arms raised, you are forced to rotate your wrist because you cannot easily lift in this position.

Poor technique. Hunched over and with your arms raised away from your sides, you are forced to rotate your wrist because you cannot easily lift in this position.

Seeing The Larynx

 

When you lift the jaw upward you should have an unobstructed view of the larynx. Pressure from the tip of a curved blade in the vallecula pulls the epiglottis forward. The straight blade lifts the epiglottis itself. Placement of the blade is critical. If you place the blade in the center of the tongue, it will mound up blocking your view. You must sweep the tongue to the left or you will see nothing.

In this photo you can clearly see the arytenoids below the glottic opening.

View of the larynx during laryngoscopy.

View of the larynx during laryngoscopy.

Ask For Cricoid Pressure If You Can’t See The Larynx

Cricoid pressure is one of the most valuable techniques to help you during intubation. We often use it to improve visualization of the so-called anterior airway, where the view of the larynx is hidden behind the back of the tongue. Often used during difficult intubation, cricoid pressure can also help with the routine intubation if the patient’s positioning is not optimal or if the blade you have chosen is not providing the best view.

Cricoid pressure can also be used to protect against aspiration, as this action pinches off the upper esophageal sphincter in patient’s with full stomachs or a history of gastric reflux.

To apply cricoid pressure, place your assistant places their thumb on one side of the cricoid ring and their index or ring finger on the other. Pushing down firmly to force the cricoid  also forces the vocal cords downward and often into the field of view.

To apply cricoid pressure your helper presses the cricoid ring firmly down against the esophagus, bringing the larynx into view.

To apply cricoid pressure your helper presses the cricoid ring firmly down against the esophagus, bringing the larynx into view.

crcoid-photo

Photo of larynx before and after cricoid pressure showing how such pressure can improve the view during laryngoscopy.

Pass The Tube

The head is now suspended from the blade held in your left hand, freeing your right hand to place the tube. Use a 6.5-8.5 for a woman and a 7.5-9.0 for a man. The larger the tube, the less resistance to breathing there will be. Hold the preselected tube in your right hand like a pencil, curve forward.

Pass the tube into the larynx through the cords in one smooth motion. If the patient is breathing, time the forward thrust for inspiration when the cords are fully open. During expiration, the tube may bounce off the closing cords into the esophagus.

Pass the tube to the right of the blade, past the right side of the tongue. You can understand why the blade should optimally be as far to the left side of the mouth as possible.

View of the endotracheal tube approaching and passing through the larynx.

View of the endotracheal tube approaching and passing through the larynx.

Watch The Tube Enter The Trachea

Try to watch the tube pass through the cords into the trachea. Although there may be a blind spot impairing your view at the moment of intubation, you can often see the arytenoid cartilages behind the tube after proper placement. Don’t relax and pull the blade out without trying to be sure of success with your own eyes. Get into the habit of seeing the tube between the cords and you will be less likely to intubate the esophagus. Stop advancing the tube when you see the cuff completely pass the cords,usually 21-22 cm at the front teeth in an adult. Carefully hold the tube where it exits the right side of the mouth and remove the blade with your left hand.

Remove The Stylet

If you’ve used a stylet, remove it before you fully advance the tube down the trachea. Make sure you have a strong grip on the tube where it exits the mouth because the force needed to remove the stylet will sometimes threaten to pull the tube out with it.

To inflate the cuff, slowly inject air through the pilot tube until the pilot balloon just starts to get tense. Don’t overfill. You don’t want the pilot balloon to feel hard when you squeeze it or it may apply excessive pressure to the tracheal mucosa. Later, after verifying tracheal placement you can go back to check the minimal sealing pressure of the cuff. To check minimal seal, suction the airway free of secretions. Apply constant airway pressure of about 20 mmHg. Remove some air until you hear a leak and then refill the cuff until the tracheal leak just disappears. Excessive cuff inflation can damage mucosa by impairing its blood supply.

Always Verify Placement, Assume Nothing!

Before doing anything else, be sure that the tube is in the trachea. Listen for the presence and equality of breath sounds over both lung fields and for the absence of gurgling sounds over the stomach. Never assume that the tube is in the trachea until you have checked it yourself.

Ventilation Is More Important Than Intubation

In the event you can’t intubate easily, stop after 30 – 60 seconds. Ventilate the patient briefly before your next attempt in order to maintain oxygenation. As long as you can ventilate the patient you have time. Time to alter your technique, change the position of the head, or use a different type of laryngoscope blade. Keep your suction handy and use it. Don’t be afraid to ask for help.

Follow this link to a video showing an entire intubation sequence using both the Macintosh and straight Miller blade.

This link takes you to a discussion on how a straight blade intubation differs from using the curved MacIntosh blade.

This link takes you to a discussion on how we can make intubation much more difficult, even in a patient who should be easy to intubation.

Although intubation requires practice to master, if you understand how the steps fit together to bring the larynx into view, and are gentle and purposeful in your actions, you too will soon be safely performing this life saving skill.

May The Force Be With You

Christine E. Whitten MD, author Anyone Can Intubate, 5th Edition

 

3 thoughts on “Intubation: Step By Step

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s